1919: ELEMENTARY NAVIGATION FOR AIRCRAFT PILOTS

June 1919 Crowd awaiting departure of Alcock and Brown from St John's NFL
June 1919 Crowd awaiting departure of Alcock and Brown from St John’s Newfoundland  (source Wiki)

Found in the unsurpassed archives of FLIGHT magazine April 17 1919:    (http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/index.html)

  • ELEMENTARY   NAVIGATION   FOR   AIRCRAFT  PILOTS
    By A. W. BROWN

    ” A KNOWLEDGE of at least the elements of navigation is necessary to  the  pilots  of  modem  aircraft  undertaking  long  journeys. whether  over  land  or  ocean.    On  recognised  air-routes  over the  land,  his  task  will  be  made  easier  by  the  provision  of land marks   and   lighthouses,   but   over  the  ocean,   his  only guides  will   be the  wireless  telegraph,  or  the  SUN  and   stars. Wireless  telgraphy  provides  an  efficient  and  rapid  means  of locating the positions of  an aircraft during a moderately long journey,  but  its reliability  has yet  to be  proved  over greater distances, such  as  will obtain  in the  Atlantic flight.   On  the other hand,  observation  of  the sun  or stars provides a reliable and   never-failing   means  of   position-finding,   for  it   will   be seldom  indeed  that  aircraft  will  be  unable  to rise  above  any clouds obscuring the sky.    It is not necessary  for  the pilot  to know  every  detail  of  the  methods  of  navigation   in  use  on shipboard ;   aircraft  are  in no  danger  from  rocks  or  shoals, and  have  a  large  radius of  vision,  so  that  a  high  degree  of accuracy  is not essential. At the same time, the great speed of  aircraft, and  the  extent to  which  they  are affected  by  the wind, render  necessary  a system  of  navigation  by  which  the position   may  be  found   at  frequent  intervals  with  rapidity and  a minimum  of  calculation. “

  • Captain Brown
    Lieutenant A.W. Brown (1885-1948)
  • From the same splendid Archives: FLIGHT magazine, June 19, 1919:
    THE FIRST NON-STOP FLIGHT ACROSS THE ATLANTIC   WITH a British-designed and British-built aeroplane and engine, piloted by British officers, rests the honour of having made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic. In an .Vickers-Vimy-Rolls-Royce biplane. [This] has won for them the Daily Mail prize of 10,000 pounds, the 2,000 guineas from the Ardath Tobacco Co., and 1.000 pounds from Mr. Lawrence R. Phillips for the first British subject to fly the Atlantic.….”
    MESSAGE from Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown to the Royal Aero Club, sent off from the wireless station at Clifden :—
    Landed at Clifden, Ireland.at 8.40 a.m., Greenwich mean-time, June 15; Vickers-Vimy Atlantic machine, leaving Newfoundland Coast 4.28 p.m. (G.M.T.), June 14. Total time 16 hours 12 minutes. Instructions awaited.”
    AS SOON AS the formalities were completed Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown dismantled the instruments from their machine and prepared to make for London as quickly as possible.…
    [after many celebrations in Ireland they finally arrived at the Royal Aero Club in London:]…
    They were welcomed by Gen. Holden, who said:
    “…It was one of the most remarkable feats of this century, and one which would be remembered as long as the world lasted. It was nine years since Bleriot crossed the Channel, a distance of 20 miles. Everybody thought that a magnificent exploit at the time ; but here they were welcoming men who had crossed nearly 2,000 miles.”
    Three cheers having been given for the airmen, there were repeated calls upon them to speak.Captain William Alcock 1892-1919

    Captain John William Alcock (1892-1919)

    CAPT. ALCOCK, standing on a chair, said :—
    ” I should like to thank Gen. Holden for the kind words he has said about Lieut. Brown and myself. I must say the flight has been quite straightforward. Although we had a little difficulty in keeping our course, Lieut. Brown did very well and steered a wonderful course. With regard to the flight itself all the credit is due to the machine, and particularly the engine—that is everything. If the engine went well there was nothing to prevent us getting across so long as Lieut. Brown was able to get his sights, and here we are.”
    Lieut. Brown, who also was loudly cheered, [spoke in similar vein]
    AFTERWARDS Capt. Alcock and Lieut. Brown stepped out on to the balcony, where they were greeted with loud cheers by the crowds still waiting outside, Lieut. Brown ultimately driving off to Ealing where a further reception by the local authorities was gone through.
    Meanwhile Capt.Alcock, after dinner at the Club, went to Olympia to witness the great boxing match.

    Vickers Vimy at the ready in St John’s Newfoundland, June 1919

    THE FOLLOWING is the story of the crossing as given to the Daily Mail by Capt. Alcock :
    —” WE have had a terrible journey.The wonder is we are here at all. We scarcely saw the sun or the moon or the stars. For hours we saw none of them. The fog was very dense, and at times we had to descend to within 300 ft. of the sea.For four hours the machine was covered in a sheet of ice carried by frozen sleet; at another time the fog was so dense that my speed indicator did not work, and for a few seconds it was very alarming. We looped the loop, I do believe, and did a very steep spiral. We did some very comic  “stunts,” for I have had no sense of horizon. The winds were favourable all the way : north-west and at times south-west. We said in Newfoundland we would do the trip in 6 hours, but we never thought we should. An hour and a half before we saw land we had no certain idea where we were, but we believed we were at Galway or thereabouts. Our delight in seeing Eashal Island and Turbot Island (5 miles west of Clifden) was great. People did not know who we were when we landed, and thought we were scouts on the look-out for the ‘ Vimy.’

    HOWEVER:
    We encountered no unforeseen conditions. We did not suffer from cold or exhaustion except when looking over the side ; then the sleet chewed bits out of our faces. We drank coffee and ale and ate sandwiches and chocolate.
    The only thing that upset me was to see the machine at the end get damaged. From above, the bog looked like a lovely field, but the machine sank into it up to the axle and fell over on to her nose.”

    800px-Alcock-Brown-Clifden1
    Alcock and Brown: landing in a marsh at Clifden, Ireland

    It certainly was unfortunate that what looked like a good meadow from above should have turned out to be a bog. Not only did the ” Vimy ” bury her nose in it but a R.A.F.machine which flew over from Oranmore to render assistance also came to grief. Later advices indicate that the Vickers machine is not so seriously injured as was at first supposed.

    DURING  the greater part of the flight of 1,950 miles the machine was at an average altitude of 4,000 ft. but at one
    time—about 6 a.m.—in an endeavour to get above the clouds and fog, it went up to 11,000 ft. Lieut. Brown was only
    able to take three readings for position, one from the sun, one from the moon and one from the Pole Star and Vega.
    On passing Signal Hill, Lieut. Brown set out a course for the ocean on 124 deg. compass course and at 3 a.m. from an observation on Polaris and Vega he found he was about 2 deg. south. He then set a course of 110 deg.
    Between 4 and 5 a.m. the machine ran into a very thick fog bank, and the air speed indicator jammed, through sleet freezing on it, at 90 m.p.h. It was then that Capt. Alcock thinks the machine looped, at any rate it went into a steep spiral which only ended with the machine practically on its back about 50 ft. from the water. The machine was covered with ice, and it continually became necessary to chip ice off the instruments, etc.   Capt. Alcock says that he nursed the engines all the way, and had one-third of his petrol supply left when he landed. One of the exhaust pipes blew off, but otherwise there was no trouble from the engine installation.

    The Start from St John's
    The Start from St John’s, Newfoundland

    APPARENTLY the start from St. John’s provided an anxious time for the onlookers. The machine had a hard job to get away with her heavy load. The aerodrome level was only 500 yards long, but the machine took off at 300 yards, and just managed to clear the trees and houses. However she climbed steadily if very slowly, and when she passed over the harbour a t St. John’s had reached a height of 1,000 ft.
    THE FLIGHT has shown that the Atlantic flight is practicable, but I think it should be done not with an aeroplane or seaplane, but with a flying-boat. We had plenty of reserve fuel left, using only two-thirds of our supply.”

  • 773px-Salon_de_locomotion_aerienne_1909_Grand_Palais_Paris
    First “Salon_de_Locomotion_Aerienne”_1909_Grand_Palais_Paris
  • From FLIGHT Magazine, Deceember 25, 1919:
    THE DEATH OF SIR JOHN ALCOCK
    IT is with most profound regret that we have to record the fatal accident to Sir John Alcock, which occurred on the afternoon of December 18,’ while he was engaged in taking a new Vickers machine to Paris in connection with the Salon. It appears that the machine when nearing Rouen had great difficulty in negotiating a strong wind. A farmer at Cote d’Evrard, about 25 miles north of Rouen, saw the machine come out of the fog, commence to fly unsteadily, and—it was then about 1 o’clock—it suddenly crashed to the ground.
    SIR JOHN ALCOCK  was taken from the wreck, but unfortunately there was considerable delay in getting medical assistance  as the farmhouse near where the crash occurred is out of the way. As soon as the accident was reported, doctors rushed from No. 6 British General Hospital, Rouen, but they were too late. It is probable that an enquiry will be held by the French authorities, at which the Air Ministry and Messrs. Vickers will be represented. Arrangements are being made for the conveyance of the body of Sir John Alcock to England for burial in Manchester, his native city. The death of Sir John Alcock is an irreparable loss to aviation. His great flight across the Atlantic is too fresh in the mind of readers of FLIGHT for further reference to be made to it here, while his previous work is recorded in the pages of past volumes of this paper.
  •  NOTE: After his record Atlantic flight, Sir Arthur Whitten Brown pursued a career in industry. He rejoined the RAF for a short period during the Second World War, but had to resign because of ill health. He died in his sleep in 1948.
  • [picture credits:  http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page]
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